Cadence is running rate in steps per minute, and is a factor of speed (speed = 0.5 steps/min x stride length). There is an optimal cadence for every runner, depending on speed and height.


Cadence and plantar loading - Increased cadence decreased plantar loading in healthy runners, despite the increased number of steps.

Wellenkotter, J, Kernozek, T. W, Meardon, S, & Suchomel, T. (2014). The Effects of Running Cadence Manipulation on Plantar Loading in Healthy Runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(9), 779–784.


Cadence and patellofemoral loading - Increased cadence decreased patellofemoral loading and may be an effective preventative measure for this condition.

Lenhart, Rachel L, Thelen, Darryl G, Wille, Christa M, Chumanov, Elizabeth S, & Heiderscheit, Bryan C. (2014). Increasing Running Step Rate Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Forces. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(3), 557–564.


Gait retraining with cadence - Gait retraining at >110% preferred cadence can help heel strikers run with a mid or forefoot strategy. Allen, Darrell J, Heisler, Hollie, Mooney, Jennifer, & Kring, Richard. (2016). THE EFFECT OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON FOOT STRIKE PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 11(1), 54–63.