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Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters

Time and distance-based metrics from walks and runs.

Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters are the measures obtained from a comprehensive gait analysis using the walk or run tests. Gait analyses are used for clinical identification of deviations from normal gait. Spatiotemporal gait parameters concern spatial (distance) parameters along with temporal (time) parameters. They can also be separated into temporophasic parameters which reflect time-based percentages of these parameters in reference to the gait cycle as a whole.

Spatial Paramaters:

  • Step Length (cm) - distance from the heel of one foot-strike to the heel of the opposite foot-strike
  • Step Width (cm) - the distance between the centers of the feet during the double limb support portion of the gait cycle
  • Stride Length (cm) - distance between heels of two consecutive foot-strikes of the same foot (distance of a whole gait cycle)

Temporal Parameters:

  • Cadence - steps/min
  • Step Time (s) - Time elapsed from initial contact of one foot to initial contact of the opposite foot
  • Stride Time (s) - Time of one whole gait cycle (right foot hitting the ground, left foot hitting the ground, then right foot hitting the ground again)
  • Stance Time (s) - Time from heel strike to toe off on the same foot
  • Swing Time (s) - Time from toe off to heel strike on the same foot
  • Single Support Time (s) - Time in one gait cycle in which only one foot is on the ground
  • Double Support Time (s) - Time in one gait cycle in which both feet are on the ground

Temporophasic Parameters:

  • % of stance time (% of gait cycle)
  • % of swing time (% of gait cycle)
  • % of single support time (% of gait cycle)
  • % of double support time (% of gait cycle)

Spatiotemporal Parameters:

  • Gait Speed - distance walked/time walked
  • Stride Speed - stride length/stride time

For each measure (except for cadence and gait speed), Plantiga will calculate...

  • Mean values (Left and Right) + Asymmetry
  • Variability (% Coefficient of variation) (Left and Right) + Asymmetry

Examples of how Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters would be used:

Detecting severity of Dementia - When severity of dementia increased, gait slowed down and characteristics changed. Stride velocity was strongly related to dementia severity and high mean and co-variability of step length were related to moderate dementia. High variability in stride time was related to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Based on this study, these spatiotemporal gait characteristics were deemed meaningful for screening purposes.

➡️ Gait characteristics under different walking conditions: Association with the presence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older people - (Cock et al, 2017)

Children with developmental coordination disorder - the spatiotemporal parameters recorded for both limbs were: velocity (cm/sec), stance phase duration (%), swing phase duration (%), stride length (cm), double support duration (%), and single support duration (%).

➡️ Are spatiotemporal gait characteristics reliable outcome measures in children with developmental coordination disorder? - (Morrison et al, 2012)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder
- Demonstrates decreased cadence, shorter step lengths, increased time spent in double support and a lack of increase in peak ankle dorsiflexion moment after the onset of breathlessness or leg tiredness compared to healthy subjects, while walking at their comfortable speed. Furthermore, patients with COPD walk with an larger step time and smaller step width variability during fixed speed treadmill

➡️ Spatiotemporal gait characteristics in patients with COPD during the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab-based 6-minute walk test - (Liu et al, 2017)